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公共英语等级考试(二级)命题思路与解题技巧
独白材料的命题思路与解题技巧
(一)命题思路
该段录音材料为独白材料,就是有一位录音者单独阅读一段文章。文章长度一般控制在150-250字之间。由于是PETS二级,因此材料本身一般难度不会很大。关键还是考生能不能在第一次听后能否对材料有个大概的理解。如果可以的话,则第二次就能有的放矢。在该段材料的题目设计中大都是特殊疑问句。题目多关于材料的细节、情节和主题等。有时也要求考生对材料所给予的线索做出推断。录音材料一般以叙事文为主,素材广泛。
(二)解题技巧
在解答这类题目时,应在听录音前,考生一定要浏览全部题目,对题目主题,题目提问内容和答题选项区别,做到心中有数。在第一次听录音中,要把握开头,善于抓住关键信息词,边听边看题目选项,做适当记录。在第二次听录音中,注意过渡词与一些特殊语气词,推断出文章主题和一些总结和结论。
经典例题:
Helen was about to have her first baby. One evening it was the time to take her to the hospital, so her husband, Sam, helped her get into the car and drove her there. A nurse took Helen to her room and told Sam that he could go home and she would call him when the baby arrived, but Sam said he would rather wait at the hospital. The nurse smiled and said, “There’s a waiting room at the end of the hall.”
Sam was walking anxiously up and down in the passage at about midnight when the nurse came out of his wife’s room and said, with a happy smile, “Which would you have preferred, a boy or a girl?
“A girl,” answered the husband. “I have an older sister, and she was always very kind to me when I was a child.”
“Well,” said the nurse, “It’s a boy this time.”
“That’s all right,” answered Sam cheerfully, “That was my second choice ”
1. When did Sam arrive at hospital?
[A] In the evening [B] At about midnight [C] Next morning
2.Where could Sam stay to wait for the arrival of the baby, according to the nurse?
[A] At his home [B] In his car [C] In the hospital
3.Why did Sam prefer a girl?

[A] He already had a son. [B] He wanted his daughter to have a sister.
[C] He had a sister who cared for him very much.
4.What can you tell about Sam?
[A] He had no choice but to accept the boy. [B] That was his second child.
[C] He was very happy to have a boy as well.
名师精解:题目的第1、2题都是细节题目。在独白材料中,都有明确的提示。题目的第1题考查在录音材料中的 “One evening it was the time to take her to the hospital” 这一句话上。one evening就是答案,因此答案为[A]。分析选择项,我们就可以发现答案[B]的存在是有很大迷惑作用的。题目第2题的设问陈述中突出一个词汇为could,同时在材料中也有明确的表述:A nurse took Helen to her room and told Sam that he could go home and she would call him when the baby arrived。因此题目的答案也就可知[A]。题目3,虽然材料中有提示,但还需考生,在理解的基础上才能得出正确答案,答案为[C]。题目4,就需要考生在关注全篇材料。通过听,去除答案[A][B]的错误,选择[C]。使的考生证章并能从That was my second choice中明白Sam 也高兴有个男孩.
经典例题:
Two drivers who wanted to park their cars in the same parking space. The man who arrived at the parking space first was rather old with gray hair. He was driving a large Rolls Royce. The beautiful car stopped just in front of the parking space. Then the driver turned his head and very slowly began to reverse his car into the space.
A young man in a Mini came up from behind. He noticed the space and drove straight in. He had got out of his car now and he was laughing, “You have to be young to do that!”
The older man said nothing. He just began to reverse his Rolls Royce again and crashed into the Mini very hard. The young man watched what was happening and couldn"t believe his eyes. The older driver looked out of the window and smiled. “You have to be rich to do that,” he said.
1. What do you know about the two drivers?
[A] The younger driver was quicker than the older driver.
[B] They didn’t see each other while getting into the same parking space.
[C] Neither of them was good at driving.
2. Which of the following statements about the young driver can NOT be true?
[A] He hadn’t expected the older driver to react so strongly.
[B] He was shocked to see what had become of his car.
[C] He had got ready for his defeat when he drove his Mini straight in.
3. What did the older driver mean when he said: “You have to be rich to do that”?
[A] You are not rich enough to buy a Rolls Royce like mine.
[B] You are not rich enough to park your car here.
[C] Only rich people dare to do such things.
名师精解:这段独白材料讲述了一个争抢车位的幽默故事。考生在理解上应该不存在任何的困难。第一道题目问:从独白中,我们能知道关于这两个司机的什么信息?听力材料中反复强调“the older man”和“rather old with gray hair”正确答案为[A]。第二道题目是一文篇理解题目。考生在理解了这则幽默故事的内容后,选择出答案[C]当年轻司机直接将自己的车开进车位,不会想到自己会输掉。第三道题目从年轻司机与老司机的对话中就能理解句子的含义:有了经济实力的年老人才敢这样撞掉你的车。答案所以为[C]。

第二节 英语基础知识运用
该部分由第一、二两节组成。本部分的设计初衷在于:考查考生能否掌握英语的基础语法,运用英语单词词汇知识,以英语思维方式理解简单事实性信息和用简单英语表达方式进行表达的能力。本部分全为单项选择题,考生应从每题的(A、B、C、D)四个选项中选出最符合本题提问或最佳答案。
第一节:共15题。分别为15道涉及英语基础语法知识、词汇衍变、词汇搭配和英语基本简单句型等的单项选择题。这一类型的题目往往是通过在句子中或两者对话中,留出空白,再要求考生从英语语言语法的角度或句子的意思表达角度和语言表达习惯等方面进行补充,使之成为符合一定场景和简单表达事实性信息的完整内容。一般,做这15道单项题目的参考时间约为8-10分钟之间。
第二节:共20题。他们属于一段字数在180-210之间的短文材料。在这段材料中,给考生留出了20个可供选择的空白项。因此,设计本题型的要求就在于让考生从整个篇章结构的基础上,掌握材料所表达的信息,运用英语语言词汇知识,从每题所给四个选择项中选出最佳答案。最终,将词汇和语法的检查放入到具体的语言运用环境中,考查语言的实际运用。一般,做这20道题目的参考时间约为15-17分钟之内。
英语基础知识运用部分在整个考试中所占的比重为20%。它考查了考生的英语基础知识是否扎实,体现了考生英语表达和运用能力。但我们建议在考试中,考生可先将答案写在试卷题目旁,再集中将答案转涂到答题卡1上。这样做有利于避免考试时间的浪费和题目次序混乱所造成的损失。一般,完成这部分考试内容约为25分钟(含转涂答案时间)。
一、命题规律与高分对策
(一)命题规律
在平时的各类考试中,我们习惯称15个句子(或对话)和1篇20个选择项的阅读材料为:单项填空和完形填空。为了更好的讲解他们的规律,下面我们就以这样的名称对这两者的命题规律分别进行阐述:
1.单项填空的命题规律
单项填空主要是考核考生的基础语法知识和词汇的掌握情况。全国英语等级考试二级考试大纲就检测考生掌握词汇与语法知识的水平方面提出了明确的要求:①.能适当运用基本的英语语言语法知识。②.能掌握2000左右的词汇以及相关词组。其中值得我们注意:这一部分,基本上没有涉及词语搭配和习惯用法题的考核项目!因为,在完形填空部分将对此内容有较多涉及,本部分就不在涉及,这是本考试单项填空中区别其他类型考试的一个重大特点。
其次,考试大纲中的词汇与语法知识部分要求包括了词法、句法与标点符号这三大项内容,要求考生在这一部分能适当运用名词、代词、数词、介词、连词、形容词、副词、冠词、动词和构词法,句子成分和句子种类,英语标点符号等词汇与语法项目。在历次考试中,这些词汇与语法项目都曾有出现过。但这部分内容,往往给人造成的认识是覆盖面广,知识点多,难以把握。但它也有一个明显的规律,就是考到动词的题目比例要远大于其他各项语法和其他种类词汇。在复习中,动词一定要成为我们复习的重中之重。
再者,全国英语等级考试的单项填空,一般来说,每一道题目只测试一个知识点,也就是说一道题目只留有一处空白处。而且,考生复习迎考时,应在系统复习所学英语词汇、基础英语语法和英语语言习惯用法的基础上,着重培养自己的英语应用能力,不要过多关注那些难题、偏题和怪题。
2.完形填空的命题规律
完形填空部分是给考生创设一个具体的语言环境中,考查考生在一定的语言环境中运用所学到的英语语法知识与词汇的情况,考查考生对文章的理解力和对语言的综合运用能力。通过对历次的考卷查看,二级考试选择的完形填空材料往往是选材广泛,难度适中(一般,低于普通高考英语考试完形填空水平)。同时,选择的材料一般为记叙文和带有一定记叙成分的议论文,并没出现过说明文。考生通过自己的阅读,基本上能理解材料的内容。而在文章难度的设计上,也是严格控制。一般来说,完形填空的间隔越小,题目就越难。二级考试的设计中,一般为一句留有1-2空格处供选择,空格与空格之间的距离也为6词以上;材料首句一般不设选择项;选择项的设置也一般为单个词汇,同时多实词少虚词;考查的项目设置上,简单考查英语语言语法的项目较少,而着重考查通过材料上下文的理解与连贯找出的正确选择项。
(二)高分对策
面对这些命题规律和考试要求,我们怎样才能在考试中获得这部分高分呢?我们也提出以下的高分对策:
1.单项填空(15个句子或对话)的高分对策
①熟练并运用考试大纲中所列的语法项目表和词汇表。建议:语法项目表中排列的语法项目次序可以作为自己今后复习英语语法项目的次序,逐项掌握;而词汇表作为自己测试及熟悉词汇的依据。同时,应把这两部分作为做题、选题的依据,凡是不符合上面要求的,就不需要做。
②在这里也介绍一种处理记忆词汇表的做法:根据考试大纲后的词汇表,在空白处写出它正确的中文意思。如果觉得这个词的意思是模凌两可的,就无须把它写在考试大纲词汇表的空白处,而将它记入自己的专门的单词记忆小本上。每天整理一定的单词量,并记忆这些词的正确中文意思。从而做到化整为零,在不知不觉中真正消化单词。消化完一轮单词后,为了熟悉词汇的一些固定搭配与衍生用法和考点,可以选购一本PETS单词手册,进行阅读和掌握,也可做日后做题时的查阅工具书。
③复习考试大纲的语法项目表时,很多考生会苦于难以找到PETS-2相应的语法复习书籍。我们认为,考生可以参照各省高中英语会考导引或全国成人高考英语考试教材的语法讲解对照复习。因为这些材料语法的难易把握与PETS-2相似。
④在平时的复习迎考中,考生还应注意一些易忽略的问题。记忆单词中,要了解某些单词的其他含义;能辨析某些同义词、近义词的差异,如 receive 和accept, official和 officer的区别;注意词与词搭配的关系;特定语境中的时态和结构等。一种错题记录做法也值得提倡。可以在平时做题中,记录典型的错误题目。平时自己再多看多想,避免考试中再犯同样错误。
2. 完形填空(1篇字数180-210的材料)的高分对策
完形填空题目在一定意义上就是一篇阅读。理解材料的内容是获得高分的关键。如果难以理解文章内容就更难将正确的词填入材料中。这也正是完形填空题区别与单项填空题的本质,一种更高能力的要求。这一部分要想获得高分,在平时可以从如下几个方面进行操练:
①不断培养自己的熟练、扎实的英语语言和语法知识能力。
②增强自我的快速阅读文章的能力。不仅要培养阅读的速度,还有快速捕捉有用信息,快速推测文章信息的能力。在迎考准备期间,给自己规定180-210词数的材料阅读时间。在规定时间内阅读完材料,理解大意。材料的选择可以找新概念英语2-3级左右资料练习。有意识地培养捕捉材料的主题句和材料大意。