Reading is one of the important skills in English learning. Its purpose is to enlarge their vocabulary and familiarize themselves with background information about English and to cultivate(培养) students' careful observation and their logic thinking. What is more, it is to improve students' comprehension. I have tried to train my students in the following ways: skimming and scanning, author's viewpoint, structure of the passage, structure of paragraphs, students' anticipation, punctuation and summarizing.
1. Skimming and Scanning
Before starting to read a passage in detail, I first ask the students to take a moment to preview the passage. Read quickly, without pausing to study the details. This is called skim reading. The students ask them to have these in mind: for which the passage was written, what type of passage it is, what the purpose and attitude of the author is and what the style of the article is. After having skimmed the passage, the students can study the passage in more detail, reading more slowly and carefully and looking for specific information that the questions are concerned with. This is called scanning. When students do the scanning, I ask them to read without any sound, to notice only the key words and not to pay too much attention to the new words but to pay the sense group and the main meaning of the sentence. Especially pay attention to the first sentence and the last sentence of the paragraph.
2. The author's viewpoint
In reading a passage I ask the students to makes guesses about the position of the author. Is the author neutral or does the author show his own opinion. The author often shows his opinion either by adding certain phrases or by adding a value to a word. I let the students to pay more attention to these words that the author can add, like luckily, unfortunately to show that he is pleased or not pleased with something. He can also add words, which show his surprise, regret or other emotions, for example surprisingly, to shock, unexpectedly, regrettably, pity, desirable, to be disappointed, etc. The author may also use words to indicate the level of certainty, for example: certain, obviously, undoubtedly, naturally, always, often, likely, probably, maybe, unlikely, hardly, rarely, never, etc. Another possibility is that the author adds words to comment on more or less objective facts.
3. The structure of the passage
I let the students know that the structure of a passages mostly with a title and sometimes a subtitle. After that, the introduction and the body followed by a conclusion or summary. An important aspect of reading is prediction. The better the student can predict what he or she is going to read, the faster and more effective he or she will read. The prediction process begins with the title. The introduction mostly informs the student about what he can expect. The body consists of paragraphs. Each paragraph deals with one aspect of the subject matter. Paragraphs are linked in a logical way; and the conclusion puts the subject matter in the right perspective. I asked the students' to form the main idea of the passage by putting the topic sentence of every paragraph.
4. The structure of paragraphs
I tell the students that a paragraph is a group of sentences. A typical paragraph consists of three parts. The first sentence usually contains the topic sentence, which is the heart of the paragraph. The topic sentence contains the new aspect of the subject of the passage. The second part of the paragraph contains sentences, which . These sentences may contain arguments, explanations, details, examples, and other supporting evidence. The last sentence of a paragraph is often a summary of the paragraph or a linking sentence to the next paragraph. So we can get a good impression of the contents of the .