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全国英语四级PETS4阅读精讲45
Unit 11 Culture
Words, Expressions and Grammar
Dialogue
1.
determine v.决定, 确定, 使下定决心
e.g.Demand determines production.
需求决定生产 His advice determined me to drink and smoke no more.
他的劝告使我决定不再抽烟喝酒了。
2.
cue n.暗示, 提示e.g.Follow my cue. 照我的样子。
give sb. the cue偷偷地示意, 出点子, 暗示某人
miss ones cue没有及时反应, 错过机会
take a cue懂得别人的暗示; 按别人的指点行事
3.
secularize vt.使凡俗化, 使还俗, 改作俗用
secularity n.世俗主义, 凡俗之心, 烦恼
4.
counterpart n.副本, 极相似的人或物, 配对物
e.g.The foreign minister is the counterpart of the secretary of state.
外交部长是和国务秘书对等的人
Chairman Hu met his counterpart in the United States in the people’s Hall yesterday.
胡主席昨天在人民大会堂接见了美国的国家元首。
It has no counterpart in the world.举世无双。
5.
recommendation n.推荐, 介绍(信), 劝告, 建议
e.g.I went to the new hotel on your recommendation. 乔叟
经你的介绍我去了这家新旅馆。
I followed my teacher’s recommendations and bought the book by Chaucer.
我听了老师的建议,买了一本乔叟的书。

6.
popular adj.受大众欢迎的;孚众望的
e.g.Shakespeare enjoys general popularity in the whole world.
莎士比亚在世界上享有盛名, 受欢迎, 得众望
The novel by the young writer won great popularity among the youths.
这位年轻作家的小说在青年人中颇受欢迎。
7.
aware adj 知道的;明白的
e.g.I was not aware of the fire.
我没有意识到火。
The principal didnt seem to be aware that there should have been so much dispute about the decision.
校长好象没有意识到这个决定竟会有这么多分歧。
aware,conscious,sensible 都含有“意识到的”意思。
aware 侧重“感官所意识到的外界事物”, 如:
e.g.Everybody is aware of the importance of the Four Modernizations.

每个人都意识到了四化的重要性。
conscious 侧重“心理感知”, 如:
e.g.He is conscious of a sense of quilty. 他感到内疚。
sensible 指“可用感官察觉到的(较复杂或抽象的事物的)”, 如:
e.g.I was sensible of her solemn grief. 我知道她很悲哀。
awareness n. 感知,意识
global awareness全球意识
political awareness 政治常识
environment awareness环境意识
8.
original adj最初的;最早的
e.g.Who was the original owner of this house?
谁是这座房子最早的主人?
This is the original painting, and these others are copies.
这画是原作,其他的是复制品。
The speaker seems to have no original ideas; his speech was full of clichés.
演讲人似乎没有什么独到的见解,他的讲话充满了陈词滥调。
origin n.起源, 由来, 起因, 出身, 血统, [数]原点
e.g.The origins of some words are unknown.
这些词的起源是不知的。
Many Americans are African by origin.
许多美国人是非洲血统。
He is a German by origin.他原籍德国。
At that time he was aware that he was of noble origin.
那时他才知道自己出身贵族。
The Yellow Rive is the origin of civilization in China.
黄河是中华民族文明的起源
9.
variety n.变化; 多样性; 种种;各类
e.g.The shopping-centre sells a variety of goods.
这个购物中心出售许多种商品。
The farm is planning to introduce new varieties of wheat next season.
农场正准备在下一个季节引进小麦的新品种。
He didnt come for a variety of reasons.他因种种原因没来。
vary v. 改变;变化
e.g.The weather varies from day to day.
天气一天天变化。
Although the brands of the beers vary, the average quality is good.
尽管这些啤酒的品牌不同,但是平均的品质是很不错的。
various adj.不同的, 各种各样的, 多方面的, 多样的
varied adj.杂色的, 各式各样的

10.
booth n.货摊, 售货亭, 棚
e.g.a telephone booth 电话亭
an announcer booth广播员室
toll booth收费所
information booth/desk问讯台
11.
well-fed
well-educated
well-nurtured
e.g.Away from mother, the baby is still well-fed owing to the careful nurses.
由于这些细心的护士,这个婴儿虽然不在妈妈身边,仍然被喂养的很好。
Sent to the first-class college in the world, the boy is well-educated.
在世界的一流大学里,这个男孩受到了良好的教育。
12.
leisure time 闲暇时间
leisure n.空闲, 闲暇, 悠闲, 安逸
e.g.What do you usually do in your leisure time /hours,/moments?
在空闲时间里你一般作什么?
I don’t think I have leisure to have the party with my old friends this weekend.
这个周末我没有空闲时间去和老朋友聚会。
13.
religious observance
observance n.庆祝;遵守, 奉行仪式; (宗教)典礼, (节日、生日)纪念
e.g.the observance of the Kings birthday国王祝寿大典
observe v. 遵守;奉行; 纪念;庆祝
e.g.observe an anniversary.庆祝周年纪念日
observe a persons birthday庆祝某人的生日
14.
take the day off 请假
e.g.I want to take two days off.